e-AMRIT is a portal for creating awareness about electric mobility in India. The portal aims to serve as a “one-stop site” for providing all the information related to electric vehicles. The portal aims at providing you with the access to information such as policies/incentives, charging station, business requirements, etc. so that you find the transition from petrol and diesel run vehicles to electric vehicles easier.
Searching of required information can be done primarily through full-text or keywords. You can find the search button on the top right corner of every page.
Your help will be crucial in growing the gateway to make it more inclusive, comprehensive, diverse, and useful - allowing information to be used to the transition of mobility towards cleaner and greener modes of transportation. As content collaborators and active consumers, it allows all stakeholders to drive the effort forward.
You can submit files in JPEG, JPG, PDF, MS Excel. Single file size should not exceed 5 MB. In case of videos, please upload the video in YouTube and provide the link
An electric vehicle (EV) is a vehicle that is powered by an electric motor and a battery, which can be recharged by plugging it into a fast-charging socket and a standard electrical socket as well.
To know more about types of electric vehicles, click here
There are four types of electric vehicles (EVs) available:
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV): Fully powered by electricity. These are the more efficient compared to hybrid and plug-in hybrids.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle:
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV): The vehicle uses both, the internal combustion (usually petrol) engine, and the battery powered motor powertrain. The petrol engine is used both to drive and charge when the battery is drained. These vehicles are not as efficient as fully electric or plug in hybrid vehicles.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV): Uses both an internal combustion engine and a battery charged from an external socket (they have a plug). This means the vehicle’s battery can be charged with electricity rather than the engine. PHEVs are more efficient than HEVs but less efficient than BEVs.
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV): Electrical energy is produced from fuel cell stacks which converts hydrogen to electricity.
To know more about how these electric vehicles work, click here
An electric car is silent, with the sound of running motor audible only at high speeds. Aside from that, electric vehicles are relatively easy to operate and drive like a conventional car with an automatic transmission. But, unlike an automatic, they have a lot of 'torque' from a standstill, making them incredibly responsive.
Electric vehicles are quickly becoming an affordable option for everyone. Moreover, the central/state government provides an upfront subsidy that further reduces the overall costs. The choose my EV selector tool will help you to look for an electric vehicle to cater to your requirements.
To select an electric vehicle for yourself, click here
As per the Bureau of Energy Efficiency, the average range of electric 2-wheelers currently available in the market is around 84 km per charge, which is enough for day-to-day travel within a city and the average range of electric cars available in the market is between 150-200 km per charge which when considered with continuously increasing charging infrastructure, makes commuting even inter-cities easier.
India already has 934 charging stations, and India is aggressively deploying electric vehicle charging station every 9 square km in cities and every 25 km on highways where any type of electric vehicle can be charged. Additionally, unlike petrol or diesel vehicles electric vehicle can be charged at home, office, shopping complex, etc.
There could be several factors that impact the range of an electric vehicle. Internal elements such as the use of air conditioning and/or heating are among them. Driving style can also have a substantial impact, with greater speeds and rapid acceleration reducing the available range dramatically.
Making excellent use of regenerative braking can also help to slow down the rate at which your battery's charge depletes, and the outside temperature has an effect as well, with batteries preferring warm to cold temperatures.
Every Financial Year the IRDAI notifies the third party cover premium rates for private electric vehicles.
New third-party insurance premium rates for Electric Vehicles are as follows:
|Category||Vehicle Type||Existing Rates (Rs) FY 2019-20||Proposed Rates(Rs) FY 2020-21|
|Not exceeding 30 kW||1,761||1,855|
|Exceeding 30 kW but not exceeding 65 kW||2,738||2,876|
|Exceeding 65 kW||6,707||6,707|
|Not exceeding 3 kW||410||430|
|Exceeding 3 kW but not exceeding 7 kW||639||654|
|Exceeding 7 kW but not exceeding 16 kW||1,014||1,016|
|Exceeding 16 kW||2,975||2,185|
To know more about companies offering insurance, click here
While your electric vehicle functioning reflects your driving patterns and weather, electric vehicles require less maintenance than conventional vehicles because:
The battery, motor, and related electronics require little to no regular maintenance
There are fewer fluids that require routine maintenance, such as engine oil.
Regenerative braking reduces brake wear substantially.
In comparison to a traditional conventional vehicle engine, there are much less moving parts.
At the point of use, electric vehicles emit no emissions. However, emissions are produced during the production of power, with the amount varying depending on the method used. As a result, emissions from power plants must be considered over the course of their whole life cycle.
Electric vehicles can convert about 59%–62% of the electrical energy from the grid to power at the wheels. Conventional Petrol Vehicles can only convert almost 17%–21% of the energy stored in petrol to power at the wheels. Even CNG engines are not entirely clean as they emit ammonia and produce particulate emissions.
India has ambitions to achieve about 500 GW of cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by the year 2030. As of 20 January 2021, 24.53 percent of installed capacity are renewable energy sources. Between April 2014 and January 2021, India's installed renewable energy capacity expanded by two-and-a-half times, while installed solar energy capacity increased by 15 times.
India currently ranks fourth in the world in terms of renewable energy capacity. India has one of the world's greatest rates of renewable energy growth. So, driving an electric vehicle in India is going to get even more environment friendly in the coming years.
Planning longer trips with your electric vehicle is as comfortable as with any conventional vehicle. When you need to charge while on the road, you’ll find 934 stations in India available to the public. The number is steadily increasing with new devices getting installed by different players, both public and private players.
When you start your car with a low battery, you may notice that the engine spins over slowly than usual and that the dash lights flicker or dim. Even if the battery is completely charged after driving, this can happen.
Another symptom is that once the engine has been shut off, the power windows move much slower than when the engine is operating. When the vehicle is idling, you may also notice that the lights decrease, but brighten again when the engine is revved. Corrosion at the battery terminals and cables also indicates that the battery is deteriorating.
The two most typical locations for charging an electric vehicle are at home and at work. Public charging stations can be a useful alternative for electric vehicle users who do not have access to a home or workplace charger, a simple method to top-up on occasion, or a necessity for ‘en-route' charging for longer excursions.
Charging an electric vehicle is very convenient. Every electric vehicle comes with a adapter which can be directly connected to a power socket. Table below showcases the mapping of different charger specification in India:
|S. No||Charging Station||Voltage (V)||Power (kW)||Type of Vehicle||Type of compatible charger|
|1||Level 1 (AC)||240||<=3.5 kW||4w ,3w,2w||Type 1, Bharat AC-001|
|2||Level 1 (DC)||>=48||<=15 kW||4w,3w,2w||Bharat DC-001|
|3||Level 2 (AC)||380-400||<=22 kW||4w,3w,2w||Type 1, Type 2, GB/T ,Bharat AC-001|
|4||Level 3 (AC)||200-1000||22 to 4.3 kW||4w||Type 2|
|5||Level 3 (DC)||200-1000||Up to 400 kW||4w||Type 2, CHAdeMO,CCS1,CCS2|
The cost of charging an electric vehicle at a public charging station varies substantially based on the amount of charge necessary, the cost of power in each network, and the type of public charging station utilized. Some will cost very less to use, whereas quick/rapid charging will often be more expensive than fast charging due to the convenience and greater capital costs.
To estimate the time and cost accrued while charging electric vehicle at public points, click here
Most of the time, you would rely on home charging, given that your private electric vehicle would be parked overnight, in order to ensure that your electric vehicle is available for use each morning. In most cases, charging overnight at homes will be the cheapest method to recharge as it cost
To estimate the time and cost accrued while charging electric vehicle at home, click here
When you need to charge while on the road, you’ll find 934 stations in India available to the public. The number is steadily increasing with new devices getting installed by different players, both public and private players.
With the move to electrified transportation becoming more inevitable, it’s only wise to start your business in electric mobility space. There are primarily 3 areas where your business can invest and build offerings around electric mobility. The value-wheel consists of these three major areas – Mobility, Infrastructure, and Energy.
MOBILITY : Mobility is the segment in which the actual increase of electric vehicles on the road will take place. Businesses in mobility will focus on business models that use electric vehicles to provide services to the customers. It will focus on value addition to the customers using electric vehicles.
INFRASTRUCTURE : The key barrier for the large scale adoption of electric vehicles in India is the lack of public charging infrastructure. Thus, India needs to have a robust charging infrastructure across the length and breadth of the country with considerations of traffic and population density. Infrastructure segment includes charging infrastructure, battery swapping stations and businesses involving leasing of traction batteries.
ENERGY : Research shows that a private vehicle stands idle for quite a long period of its lifetime. This very fact builds the premise for energy as a value area. Batteries in electric vehicles store electricity, and when not in use for commuting, electric vehicles owners can trade/ sell/ utilize the stored power and can earn additional revenues. Energy segment includes electricity used for charging vehicles and storing in electric vehicle batteries. Additionally, electric vehicles can be charged from renewable energy sources and actually help in contributing to grid stability by storing wind power in night and solar power in day and in turn help in proliferation of renewable energy and contribute to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
To know about various business models, you can adopt in the area of mobility, infrastructure or energy, click here
There are primarily 3 areas where businesses can invest and build offerings around electric mobility. These areas are: Mobility, Infrastructure and energy. Each of these categories are further divided into domains and each domain has several business models.
Following is the list of examples of service providers in each domain:
|S.No||Category||Domain||Business Model||Examples from India|
|1||Mobility as a service||Electric Vehicles|
|2||Micro Mobility||Bounce, Zypp, Yulu, Vogo|
|3||Ride Hailing||Ola, SmartE, Blu Smart|
|4||Car Sharing||Lithium Urban, Drivezy, E-Savari Rentals|
|5||Ride Sharing||BlaBlaCar, sRide|
|6||Car Subscription||Zoomcar, Myles|
|7||E-Roaming||Yet to be explored|
|8||Digital Payment Service||Ola Money|
|9||Infrastructure as a service||EV Charging Infrastructure|
|10||Charging infrastructure manufacturers||Delta Electronics, Mass Tech, ABB India, Exicom|
|11||Charging station operators||Amara Raja, EESL, Tata Power, Magenta Group, Fortum India, Volttic|
|12||Traction Battery||Battery Recycling:||Gravita India|
|13||Battery Subscription||Yet to be explored|
|14||Pay as you go||Sun Mobility|
|15||Battery Recycling:Battery-as-a-Service||Sun mobility and Esmito|
|16||Energy as a service||Virtual power plant||Yet to be explored|
|17||Renewable Energy and EV Charging System||Yet to be explored|
|18||Network as a service||Numocity Technologies|
To deep dive into the business models mentioned above, click here
Till 31 July 2021, there were 380 electric vehicle manufacturers in India. With the increasing adoption of Electric Vehicles in the landscape, this number is only expected to increase further.
To know about the models approved by FAME-II along with their manufacturers, click here
As India’s electric vehicle market is approaching the inflection point of price parity, the interest of Indian users in electric vehicles is higher than ever before. Startups along various components of the electric vehicle value chain, including manufacturing, retail, battery swapping, and software services, are disrupting the existing structure of the auto industry.
While the emerging firms continue to face an uphill challenge in competing with the existing giants of the transportation industry, they are increasingly making their presence felt in the still-undefined consumer market. Furthermore, the integration of emerging technologies, including AI, analytics, and machine learning, has put them at a position of technological superiority as compared to their conventional vehicle counterparts.
Startups have identified the merits of electric vehicles and related services and are ahead in the curve to offer these benefits to the consumers by making the adoption further easier for them. They have banked upon the fact that the future is Electric as e-mobility will aid the country in reducing the carbon intensity and enable users to opt for a cheaper alternative for fuel. They understand that the shift to electric vehicle is bound to happen as electric vehicles are economical, convenient and environment friendly and therefore, are playing a pivotal role in the evolving electric mobility space in India.
At present, there are 399 electric vehicle startups in India.
To know about a few startups that are present in this space, click here
The response is usually "less than a petrol or diesel vehicle," because a petrol or diesel vehicle's fuel expenses are normally higher in the range as compared to a home-charged electric vehicle. Because of the range of electric vehicles available, each journey will cost differently depending on where it is charged and how efficient the electric vehicle is in comparison to other electric vehicles.
To calculate the total savings over a journey as well as the annual savings of an electric vehicle, click here
You might feel that purchasing an electric vehicle is costlier than buying a conventional vehicle, but that is only because of the higher upfront cost. Effective cost over lifetime for electric vehicle is still less. The government offers different types of financial incentives to make electric vehicles more affordable for you. The key mechanisms for getting incentives are:
Purchase Incentives: Direct discount provided to the user on the cost of the electric vehicle
Coupons: Financial incentive where the amount is reimbursed later
Interest Subventions: Discount offered on the interest rate while availing loan
Road tax exemption: Road tax at the time of purchase is waived off
Registration fee exemption: One time registration fee applicable on new vehicle purchase is waived off
Income tax benefit: Provided as a deduction on the tax amount payable by an individual to the government
Scrapping incentives: Provided upon de-registering old Petrol and Diesel Vehicles
Others: Incentives such as interest-free loans, top-up subsidies, special incentives on electric three-wheelers, etc. can also be availed
To know about the incentives and policies offered by government at both national and state level, click here
Most of the time, you would rely on home charging, given that your private cars would be parked overnight, in order to ensure that your electric vehicle is available for use each morning. In most cases, charging overnight at homes will be the cheapest method to recharge.
To estimate the time and cost accrued while charging an electric vehicle at home and cost savings in comparison to conventional vehicles, click here
The other option to charge your electric vehicles is through public chargers. The cost of public electric vehicle charging varies substantially based on the amount of charge necessary, the cost of power in each network, and the type of public charge station utilized. Some will cost very less to use, whereas quick charging will often be more expensive than fast charging due to the convenience and greater installation costs of charge points.
To estimate the time and
cost accrued while
charging an electric vehicle at public points
and cost savings in comparison to conventional
Electric vehicles are generally run by high-energy-density Lithium-ion batteries. Statistically, the risk of them catching fire and exploding is minimal. Notwithstanding, it is paramount to ensure that the electric vehicles follow the battery safety standards such as AIS 048. AIS 048 includes safety tests for protection against short-circuit and overcharging of the batteries. It comprises of electrical tests such as short circuit test (cell level or battery module or battery pack), overcharge test (cell level or battery module or battery pack), shock test, roll-over test (battery module) (applicable only for flooded lead-acid batteries) among others to rule out fire/explosion events.
To know more about safety requirements of traction batteries, click here
Battery safety can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms including:
Division of battery packs into arrays and cell isolation in order to reduce the potential damage whenever a malfunction takes place.
Utilization of a cooling mechanism to maintain the EV battery at a low and safe temperature.
IP rated tough casings (ranging from IP 65 to IP 68) to provide dust and water protection to the external packaging of the battery pack and all electrical systems.
Utilization of a battery management system to continuously monitor the battery pack’s temperature and health. The battery management system is capable of preventing events like ‘thermal runaway’.
Precautionary measures need to be undertaken by the electric vehicle professionals working with high voltage electric vehicle batteries to minimize the potential risks. The employers are liable to ensure the safety of employees and are mandated to adhere to Occupational Safety and Health Standard e.g. OSHA 1910.132 and equivalent Indian standards created by BIS. Besides, they also need to ensure that the employees receive necessary safety trainings and have access to PPE kits for working in an environment with safety risks.
Yes. The vast majority of today’s lithium-ion batteries are recycled. Recycling of batteries reduces negative environmental impact as well as has the potential to reduce the overall cost of a battery. The overview of a battery’s life cycle with recycling is shown below:
In Feb 2020, Government of India released battery waste management rules. As per the rules, it shall be the responsibility of a manufacturer, importer, assembler and re- conditioner to ensure that the used batteries are collected back. They will also ensure that used batteries collected are sent only to the registered recyclers. Also, the Government has established Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) to ensure that battery suppliers are responsible for the recycling of batteries they have sold into the market.
The existing major methods used for recycling include mechanical, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. The table below covers the aspects of material recovery, pros-cons, and major companies in India that are involved in the aforementioned recycling technologies.
|Recycling method||Recovered material||Companies||Pros||Cons|
|Mechanical process||Lithium||Tes-Amm (Chennai) E-Parisara (Bangalore)||Applicable to all the chemistry/ Form factors||Must be combined with other methods to recover more materials|
|Hydrometallurgy process||Copper, Aluminum, cobalt, Lithium, Anode can’t be recovered||SungEEL HiMetal (Anantpur), Surbine Recycling (Jamnagar)||Applicable to all the chemistry/ Form factors||Only economical for batteries containing Co and Ni|
|Pyrometallurgy process||Cobalt, nickel, copper, some iron, Anode can’t be recovered||No company in India||More recovery of materials||Only economical for batteries containing Co and Ni; Toxic substances forming|
Battery swapping provides a method of decoupling of batteries from EVs and reducing their upfront costs. It also ensures reduced waiting / charging time for vehicles and offers a promising alternative to increase the adoption of EVs in commercial segment.
The rate of adoption of battery swapping in India has remained low because of multiple pitfalls associated with it. This includes lack of standardization, unsuitable battery pack design, higher costs over the electric vehicle life, shorter commercial life of battery packs. However, it provides several advantages to the electric vehicle owners, battery swapping system owners, and electricity distribution companies.
The existing major methods used for recycling include mechanical, hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy. The table below covers the aspects of material recovery, pros-cons, and major companies in India that are involved in the aforementioned recycling technologies.
The benefits to electric vehicle owners include reduced cost of ownership, reduced downtime/ charge time and reduced range anxiety in presence of wide network of BSS.
The benefits to battery system operators include reduced cost of real estate (no need for large parking space), minimization of electricity cost (in ToU scenario) and option of having another revenue stream by participating in electricity market.
The benefits to the distribution companies include planned development of infrastructure, treatment of battery swapping systems as flexible loads and the increased predictability of load, which otherwise would be difficult to have in high EV penetration scenario.
Prominent companies involved in the battery swapping space in India include Sun Mobility, Lithion, E-Chargeup Solution, ACME, Amara Raja, and Panasonic.
Electric vehicles are subjected to the same rigorous safety testing as conventional vehicles and must meet the same safety standards and homologation criteria, as well as additional electric vehicle-specific requirements. Similar to Europe, and in some cases more so, ARAI has established a comprehensive methodology for battery testing as well as vehicle testing of batteries (for example, cells in India need to pass the nail penetration test). Vehicle and battery makers must also have extra system design redundancies in place in addition to the tests.
To know more about standards and specifications that ensure safety to drive as well as charge electric vehicles, click here
"Intrinsically safe" electric vehicles are required. It's crucial to remember that all electric automobiles must adhere to the same stringent design and manufacturing standards as their petrol and diesel counterparts. Essentially, they go through the same procedure, with an extensive focus on making these vehicles as secure as possible. As soon as a flaw is identified, the battery's power flow is turned off. In the event of an accident, the battery is instantly isolated from all other high-voltage components and cables. Therefore, Electric Vehicles are as safe as any other petrol or diesel vehicles.
The battery life of your electric vehicle can be shortened by hot weather. High temperatures can cause the lithium-ion batteries found in electric vehicles to lose charge, just as they would if you left your phone out in the sun for too long. Extreme temperatures are known to drain more battery power from your electric car, especially in the heat, which might cause the device to overheat and consume more energy than usual. So, if you can drive the lengthier segments of your route while the weather is cooler, you'll be able to maximise the range of your electric vehicle.
An ingress protection system is built into electric vehicles. Depending on the vehicle, an IP grade of IP65 or IP67 is normal for an electric vehicle. The numerals here show their resistance to two elements: dust and water. As a result, the greater the number, the stronger the resistance against these two elements. IP67 is the classification given to modern electric vehicle batteries. This is sufficient, as anything over IP67 is typically reserved for specialised equipment such as submarines. A vehicle having an IP67 classification can be submerged in water up to a metre deep for up to 30 minutes without leaking. Thus, in a circumstance where the automobile must meet waterlogging or a flood-like situation with a wading depth of roughly 300 mm, there is no need to be concerned about damage to the vehicle's terminals, connectors, or high voltage design.
Driving an electric vehicle into a pool of water doesn't cause any malfunction and doesn't conduct electricity into the water around the vehicle. All systems inside the battery pack have multiple layers of protective cutoffs, which activate at the first sign of water ingress. The main battery pack also has the ability to isolate itself electrically from the rest of the vehicle.
Fast charging degrades the battery more quickly than AC charging, although this isn't necessarily a problem for your electric vehicle if DC chargers aren't the primary source of power.
Monsoons are occasionally accompanied by unwelcome thunderstorms. Many people are concerned about the impact of lightning on an electric vehicle. However, if lightning strikes a car, you may be safer inside. This is because when a bolt of lightning strikes an automobile, it strikes the outside, which is a metallic surface. Because of the electromagnetic effects on the vehicle's skin, the current would now safely travel into the ground. The Faraday Effect is the name for this phenomenon. A report by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration compared the identical situation, and it found that Electric automobiles, according to Busting Monsoon Myths About Electric Vehicles, have no higher proclivity than their petrol or diesel counterparts. In fact, they are less vulnerable to damage in the event of a lightning strike.
Because we know that water carries energy, people are afraid about charging an electric vehicle in the rain. Electric car chargers, on the other hand, are weatherproof and designed to protect both the car and its occupants from electrical shock. Electric car chargers are also put through thorough testing and must fulfil certain safety standards. Additionally, waterproofing electrical connectors, as well as any other electrical equipment, is quite common.
Cold temperatures have a detrimental impact on a battery's performance as well as its capacity to receive a charge. Regenerative braking, which recovers energy lost during deceleration or halting and transfers it back to the battery, is similarly limited by cold temperatures. Simply put, when the temperatures drop, you'll travel fewer miles, and charging the vehicle will take longer.